26
2017
09

JNI源码分析 (并实现JNI动态注册)

1. C/C++ 的 编译 和 链接

c/c++ ========= 二进制文件

对于C/C++ 一般分为两个阶段
1. 编译

xxx.c ——> windows .obj ; Linux .o –》 语法检查

  1. 链接

.o —–> log.so .dll .exe

举例:
a.c a.h b.c b.h
a.c –>b.h(test方法)

在编译阶段只会去找b.h有没有test方法,
而在链接的阶段,他会在b.o当中去找这个test方法

如果没有test方法会 报 LinkErro错误。
而这个Link erro 错误一般是因为,我们在一个文件当中引入了一个.h文件,并且使用了这个文件当中的这个方法,而这个对应的.h文件对应的.o文件(中间文件)里面没有这个方法的实现体。

2.编译器

将这个C/C++编译链接生成二进制文件的这个过程是谁做的?

是编译器

编译规则:
    Eclipse
        GUN编译器  ----> 编译规则 Android.mk     (log.so是android自带的)
    Android Studio
        LLVM编译器 ----> 编译规则 CMakeList.txt

    三段式编译器

3. 使用android studio 创建一个工程

勾上 android studio 会给我们提供一个 exceptiosns support 异常支持

public class MainActivity extends AppCompatActivity {

    private static String TAG = "MainActivity";

    @Override
    protected void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
        setContentView(R.layout.activity_main);

        // Example of a call to a native method
        TextView tv = (TextView) findViewById(R.id.sample_text);
// tv.setText(stringFromJNI());
        diff();
    }


    public void diff(){
        Log.d(TAG,"diff ");
        FileUtils.diff("a","b",2);
    }

}

javah 生成头文件

public class FileUtils {

    public static native void diff(String path,String pattern_Path,int file_num);

    public static void javaDiff(String path,String pattern_Path,int file_num){}

    // Used to load the 'native-lib' library on application startup.
    static {
        System.loadLibrary("native-lib");
    }
}
#include "com_example_zeking_lsn9_FileUtils.h"

#include <android/log.h>

//int __android_log_print(int prio, const char *tag, const char *fmt, ...)
#define TAG "Zeking_JNI"
// __VA_ARGS__ 代表可以输入参数 %s %d 之类的
#define LOGI(...) __android_log_print(ANDROID_LOG_INFO,TAG,__VA_ARGS__)

/* * Class: com_example_zeking_lsn9_FileUtils * Method: diff * Signature: (Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/String;I)V */
JNIEXPORT void JNICALL Java_com_example_zeking_lsn9_FileUtils_diff
(JNIEnv *env, jclass clazz, jstring path, jstring pattern_Path, jint file_num){

    LOGI("JNI Begin....%s..","Zeking Hello");
}

jvm是虚拟机内存
C/C++是native内存
并且这个so库是放在apk的lib下面的

那这个so库 ,系统是怎么找到的
System.loadLibrary是怎么来找到的?
并且系统是如何来区分(JVM是怎么来区分native 方法(diff)和 javaDiff方法)

native关键字起到什么作用?
loadLibrary做了什么?

当我们调用javaDiff的时候会到Java虚拟机的内存当中来处理找这个方法,而加了native关键字的时候他就会去到C++的堆栈空间找这个C++的实现。
为什么native会这样,起了什么作用?

先在看声明了native的方法和没有声明native方法之间的区别。

使用 javap -s -p -v FileUtils.class。找到这两个方法,可以看到这两个方法的区别在于 flag ,native声明的方法 多了个 ACC_NATIVE 的flag。也就是说java在执行这个文件的时候 ,对于有ACC_NATIVE 的flag的方法,他就会去 native区间去找,如果没有ACC_NATIVE 这个flag 就在本地的虚拟机空间来找这个方法

C:\Users\Zeking\Desktop\Lsn9\app\src\main\java\com\example\zeking\lsn9>javap -s -p -v FileUtils.class
Classfile /C:/Users/Zeking/Desktop/Lsn9/app/src/main/java/com/example/zeking/lsn9/FileUtils.class
  Last modified 2017-9-2; size 469 bytes
  MD5 checksum 19201ed5479758e0dfffb63528653a65
  Compiled from "FileUtils.java"
public class com.example.zeking.lsn9.FileUtils
  minor version: 0
  major version: 52
  flags: ACC_PUBLIC, ACC_SUPER
Constant pool:
   #1 = Methodref          #5.#16         // java/lang/Object."<init>":()V
   #2 = String             #17            // native-lib
   #3 = Methodref          #18.#19        // java/lang/System.loadLibrary:(Ljava/lang/String;)V
   #4 = Class              #20            // com/example/zeking/lsn9/FileUtils
   #5 = Class              #21            // java/lang/Object
   #6 = Utf8               <init>
   #7 = Utf8               ()V
   #8 = Utf8               Code
   #9 = Utf8               LineNumberTable
  #10 = Utf8               diff
  #11 = Utf8               (Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/String;I)V
  #12 = Utf8               javaDiff
  #13 = Utf8               <clinit>
  #14 = Utf8               SourceFile
  #15 = Utf8               FileUtils.java
  #16 = NameAndType        #6:#7          // "<init>":()V
  #17 = Utf8               native-lib
  #18 = Class              #22            // java/lang/System
  #19 = NameAndType        #23:#24        // loadLibrary:(Ljava/lang/String;)V
  #20 = Utf8               com/example/zeking/lsn9/FileUtils
  #21 = Utf8               java/lang/Object
  #22 = Utf8               java/lang/System
  #23 = Utf8               loadLibrary
  #24 = Utf8               (Ljava/lang/String;)V
{
  public com.example.zeking.lsn9.FileUtils();
    descriptor: ()V
    flags: ACC_PUBLIC
    Code:
      stack=1, locals=1, args_size=1
         0: aload_0
         1: invokespecial #1                  // Method java/lang/Object."<init>":()V
         4: return
      LineNumberTable:
        line 7: 0

  public static native void diff(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, int);
    descriptor: (Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/String;I)V 
    flags: ACC_PUBLIC, ACC_STATIC, ACC_NATIVE  // 这边多了个 ACC_NATIVE 代表是native

  public static void javaDiff(java.lang.String, java.lang.String, int);
    descriptor: (Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/String;I)V
    flags: ACC_PUBLIC, ACC_STATIC
    Code:
      stack=0, locals=3, args_size=3
         0: return
      LineNumberTable:
        line 11: 0

  static {};
    descriptor: ()V
    flags: ACC_STATIC
    Code:
      stack=1, locals=0, args_size=0
         0: ldc           #2                  // String native-lib
         2: invokestatic  #3                  // Method java/lang/System.loadLibrary:(Ljava/lang/String;)V
         5: return
      LineNumberTable:
        line 15: 0
        line 16: 5
}
SourceFile: "FileUtils.java"

4. System.loadLibrary 找到so库文件 分析

native的方法栈为什么能被jvm调用到?从System.loadLibrary 入手

System.loadLibrary("native-lib");

System.java

 public static void loadLibrary(String libname) {
        Runtime.getRuntime().loadLibrary0(VMStack.getCallingClassLoader(), libname);
    }

Runtime.java

synchronized void loadLibrary0(ClassLoader loader, String libname) {
        if (libname.indexOf((int)File.separatorChar) != -1) {
            throw new UnsatisfiedLinkError(
    "Directory separator should not appear in library name: " + libname);
        }
        String libraryName = libname;
        if (loader != null) {
            // 点进去发现是return null;找到so库的全路径
            String filename = loader.findLibrary(libraryName);
            if (filename == null) {
                // It's not necessarily true that the ClassLoader used
                // System.mapLibraryName, but the default setup does, and it's
                // misleading to say we didn't find "libMyLibrary.so" when we
                // actually searched for "liblibMyLibrary.so.so".
                throw new UnsatisfiedLinkError(loader + " couldn't find \"" +
                                               System.mapLibraryName(libraryName) + "\"");
            }
            String error = doLoad(filename, loader);
            if (error != null) {
                throw new UnsatisfiedLinkError(error);
            }
            return;
        }

        String filename = System.mapLibraryName(libraryName);
        List<String> candidates = new ArrayList<String>();
        String lastError = null;
        for (String directory : getLibPaths()) {
            String candidate = directory + filename;
            candidates.add(candidate);

            if (IoUtils.canOpenReadOnly(candidate)) {
                String error = doLoad(candidate, loader);
                if (error == null) {
                    return; // We successfully loaded the library. Job done.
                }
                lastError = error;
            }
        }

        if (lastError != null) {
            throw new UnsatisfiedLinkError(lastError);
        }
        throw new UnsatisfiedLinkError("Library " + libraryName + " not found; tried " + candidates);
    }
String filename = loader.findLibrary(libraryName);

点进去 发现是  return null;

ClassLoader.java


protected String findLibrary(String libname) {
        return null;
    }

所以可以想到 应该是 ClassLoader的实现类去实现了这个 findLibrary方法。
怎么找是哪个实现类 实现的呢?

Log.i(TAG,this.getClassLoader().toString());

 dalvik.system.PathClassLoader[DexPathList[[zip file "/data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/base.apk", zip file "/data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_dependencies_apk.apk", zip file "/data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_slice_0_apk.apk", zip file "/data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_slice_1_apk.apk", zip file "/data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_slice_2_apk.apk", zip file "/data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_slice_3_apk.apk", zip file "/data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_slice_4_apk.apk", zip file "/data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_slice_5_apk.apk", zip file "/data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_slice_6_apk.apk", zip file "/data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_slice_7_apk.apk", zip file "/data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_slice_8_apk.apk", zip file "/data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_slice_9_apk.apk"],nativeLibraryDirectories=[/data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/lib/arm64, /data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/base.apk!/lib/arm64-v8a, /data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_dependencies_apk.apk!/lib/arm64-v8a, /data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_slice_0_apk.apk!/lib/arm64-v8a, /data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_slice_1_apk.apk!/lib/arm64-v8a, /data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_slice_2_apk.apk!/lib/arm64-v8a, /data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_slice_3_apk.apk!/lib/arm64-v8a, /data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_slice_4_apk.apk!/lib/arm64-v8a, /data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_slice_5_apk.apk!/lib/arm64-v8a, /data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_slice_6_apk.apk!/lib/arm64-v8a, /data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_slice_7_apk.apk!/lib/arm64-v8a, /data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_slice_8_apk.apk!/lib/arm64-v8a, /data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1/split_lib_slice_9_apk.apk!/lib/arm64-v8a, /vendor/lib64, /system/lib64]]]

从上面可以看出是 PathClassLoader

PathClassLoader .java 这里面没有 findLibrary 继续进到 BaseDexClassLoader

public class PathClassLoader extends BaseDexClassLoader {
    ......
}

BaseDexClassLoader .java

private final DexPathList pathList;
/** * Constructs an instance. * * @param dexPath the list of jar/apk files containing classes and * resources, delimited by {@code File.pathSeparator}, which * defaults to {@code ":"} on Android * @param optimizedDirectory directory where optimized dex files * should be written; may be {@code null} * @param librarySearchPath the list of directories containing native * libraries, delimited by {@code File.pathSeparator}; may be * {@code null} * @param parent the parent class loader */
public BaseDexClassLoader(String dexPath, File optimizedDirectory,
        String librarySearchPath, ClassLoader parent) {
    super(parent);
    this.pathList = new DexPathList(this, dexPath, librarySearchPath, optimizedDirectory);
}


@Override
public String findLibrary(String name) {
    return pathList.findLibrary(name);
}

DexPathList .java

public String findLibrary(String libraryName) {
String fileName = System.mapLibraryName(libraryName);

for (Element element : nativeLibraryPathElements) {
    String path = element.findNativeLibrary(fileName);

    if (path != null) {
        return path;
    }
}

return null;
}

首先我们先来看

DexPathList .java 中的 String fileName = System.mapLibraryName(libraryName);

System.java 看注释可以看出 ,是 根据你的平台来找你的 so库

/** * Maps a library name into a platform-specific string representing * a native library. * * @param libname the name of the library. * @return a platform-dependent native library name. * @exception NullPointerException if <code>libname</code> is * <code>null</code> * @see java.lang.System#loadLibrary(java.lang.String) * @see java.lang.ClassLoader#findLibrary(java.lang.String) * @since 1.2 */
public static native String mapLibraryName(String libname);

再继续看 for (Element element : nativeLibraryPathElements) {
DexPathList .java 可以看到 nativeLibraryPathElements 是在 DexPathList的构造函数里面初始化的

public DexPathList(ClassLoader definingContext, String dexPath,
            String librarySearchPath, File optimizedDirectory) {

        ......
        // 找so库是从两个地方来找,
        // 1.在BaseDexClassLoader初始化的时候传入的目录 这个目录是 librarySearchPath,这个就是应用apk下面的解压的lib目录下
        // 2. 在系统的环境变量里面,System.getProperty("java.library.path"):这个目录通过Log.i(TAG,System.getProperty("java.library.path"));打印 出来是 /vendor/lib64:/system/lib64 或者 /vendor/lib:/system/lib
        // dalvik.system.PathClassLoader[DexPathList[[zip file "/data/app/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1.apk"],nativeLibraryDirectories=[/data/app-lib/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1, /system/lib]]]
        // /data/app-lib/com.example.zeking.lsn9-1, 
        // /system/lib

        this.nativeLibraryDirectories = splitPaths(librarySearchPath, false);
        // 这个是系统里面 java.library.path 
        this.systemNativeLibraryDirectories =
                splitPaths(System.getProperty("java.library.path"), true);
        List<File> allNativeLibraryDirectories = new ArrayList<>(nativeLibraryDirectories);
        allNativeLibraryDirectories.addAll(systemNativeLibraryDirectories);
        // 就是在这边进行初始化的
        this.nativeLibraryPathElements = makePathElements(allNativeLibraryDirectories,
                                                          suppressedExceptions,
                                                          definingContext);

          ......
    }

5. System.loadLibrary 加载so库文件 分析

分析下他是怎么加载so库的

  1. 现在回到Runtime.java 的 loadLibrary0 方法 找到他的doLoad 方法
synchronized void loadLibrary0(ClassLoader loader, String libname) {
        if (libname.indexOf((int)File.separatorChar) != -1) {
            throw new UnsatisfiedLinkError(
    "Directory separator should not appear in library name: " + libname);
        }
        String libraryName = libname;
        if (loader != null) {
            String filename = loader.findLibrary(libraryName); // 找到so库的全路径
            if (filename == null) {
                // It's not necessarily true that the ClassLoader used
                // System.mapLibraryName, but the default setup does, and it's
                // misleading to say we didn't find "libMyLibrary.so" when we
                // actually searched for "liblibMyLibrary.so.so".
                throw new UnsatisfiedLinkError(loader + " couldn't find \"" +
                                               System.mapLibraryName(libraryName) + "\"");
            }
            String error = doLoad(filename, loader);
            if (error != null) {
                throw new UnsatisfiedLinkError(error);
            }
            return;
        }

        String filename = System.mapLibraryName(libraryName);
        List<String> candidates = new ArrayList<String>();
        String lastError = null;
        for (String directory : getLibPaths()) {
            String candidate = directory + filename;
            candidates.add(candidate);

            if (IoUtils.canOpenReadOnly(candidate)) {
                String error = doLoad(candidate, loader);
                if (error == null) {
                    return; // We successfully loaded the library. Job done.
                }
                lastError = error;
            }
        }

        if (lastError != null) {
            throw new UnsatisfiedLinkError(lastError);
        }
        throw new UnsatisfiedLinkError("Library " + libraryName + " not found; tried " + candidates);
    }

doLoad 方法

private String doLoad(String name, ClassLoader loader) {
        // Android apps are forked from the zygote, so they can't have a custom LD_LIBRARY_PATH,
        // which means that by default an app's shared library directory isn't on LD_LIBRARY_PATH.

        // The PathClassLoader set up by frameworks/base knows the appropriate path, so we can load
        // libraries with no dependencies just fine, but an app that has multiple libraries that
        // depend on each other needed to load them in most-dependent-first order.

        // We added API to Android's dynamic linker so we can update the library path used for
        // the currently-running process. We pull the desired path out of the ClassLoader here
        // and pass it to nativeLoad so that it can call the private dynamic linker API.

        // We didn't just change frameworks/base to update the LD_LIBRARY_PATH once at the
        // beginning because multiple apks can run in the same process and third party code can
        // use its own BaseDexClassLoader.

        // We didn't just add a dlopen_with_custom_LD_LIBRARY_PATH call because we wanted any
        // dlopen(3) calls made from a .so's JNI_OnLoad to work too.

        // So, find out what the native library search path is for the ClassLoader in question...
        String librarySearchPath = null;
        if (loader != null && loader instanceof BaseDexClassLoader) {
            BaseDexClassLoader dexClassLoader = (BaseDexClassLoader) loader;
            librarySearchPath = dexClassLoader.getLdLibraryPath();
        }
        // nativeLoad should be synchronized so there's only one LD_LIBRARY_PATH in use regardless
        // of how many ClassLoaders are in the system, but dalvik doesn't support synchronized
        // internal natives.
        synchronized (this) {
            // 这一边
            return nativeLoad(name, loader, librarySearchPath);
        }
    }
    // 这一边
 // TODO: should be synchronized, but dalvik doesn't support synchronized internal natives.
    private static native String nativeLoad(String filename, ClassLoader loader,
                                            String librarySearchPath);

nativeLoad 方法 要去 runtime.c(java_lang_Runtime.cc)android-7.1.0_r1.7z\android-7.1.0_r1\libcore\ojluni\src\main\native\runtime.c

runtime.c 这个类 在 7.0 里面是没有的,4.4 里面才有,所以要去 4.4 里面拷贝到7.0 源码里面
将4.4 源码 中的 dalvik/vm 拷贝到 7.0 的dalvik目录下

以下是 Runtime.c的源码


#include "jni.h"
#include "jni_util.h"
#include "jvm.h"

#include "JNIHelp.h"

#define NATIVE_METHOD(className, functionName, signature) \
{ #functionName, signature, (void*)(className ## _ ## functionName) }

JNIEXPORT jlong JNICALL
Runtime_freeMemory(JNIEnv *env, jobject this) {
    return JVM_FreeMemory();
}

JNIEXPORT jlong JNICALL
Runtime_totalMemory(JNIEnv *env, jobject this) {
    return JVM_TotalMemory();
}

JNIEXPORT jlong JNICALL
Runtime_maxMemory(JNIEnv *env, jobject this) {
    return JVM_MaxMemory();
}

JNIEXPORT void JNICALL
Runtime_gc(JNIEnv *env, jobject this) {
    JVM_GC();
}

JNIEXPORT void JNICALL
Runtime_nativeExit(JNIEnv *env, jclass this, jint status) {
    JVM_Exit(status);
}

// 这个就是 nativeLoad 方法 的实现
JNIEXPORT jstring JNICALL
Runtime_nativeLoad(JNIEnv *env, jclass ignored, jstring javaFilename,
                   jobject javaLoader, jstring javaLibrarySearchPath) {
    // JVM_NativeLoad 方法 在 OpenjdkJvm.cc 中
    return JVM_NativeLoad(env, javaFilename, javaLoader, javaLibrarySearchPath);
}

static JNINativeMethod gMethods[] = {
        // 使用了一个 NATIVE_METHOD 的 宏替换 ,这个宏替换在这个类的顶部
        NATIVE_METHOD(Runtime, freeMemory, "!()J"),
        NATIVE_METHOD(Runtime, totalMemory, "!()J"),
        NATIVE_METHOD(Runtime, maxMemory, "!()J"),
        NATIVE_METHOD(Runtime, gc, "()V"),
        NATIVE_METHOD(Runtime, nativeExit, "(I)V"),
        NATIVE_METHOD(Runtime, nativeLoad,
                      "(Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/ClassLoader;Ljava/lang/String;)"
                              "Ljava/lang/String;"),
};

void register_java_lang_Runtime(JNIEnv *env) {
    jniRegisterNativeMethods(env, "java/lang/Runtime", gMethods, NELEM(gMethods));
}

下面就是 OpenjdkJvm.cc

JNIEXPORT jstring JVM_NativeLoad(JNIEnv* env,
                                 jstring javaFilename,
                                 jobject javaLoader,
                                 jstring javaLibrarySearchPath) {
  ScopedUtfChars filename(env, javaFilename);
  if (filename.c_str() == NULL) {
    return NULL;
  }

  std::string error_msg;
  {
    // 这边 有一个 JavaVMExt , 这个方法的参数有一个 JNIEnv 。
    // 那好,JavaVM* 和 JNIEnv 有什么区别呢?
    // JavaVM* : 一个android应用的进程,有且仅有一个javaVm
    // JNIEnv :每个java线程都对应一个env的环境变量
    // 虚拟机里面jvm 是怎么找到具体的so库的堆栈的?,他调用了 JavaVM的loadNativeLibrary 方法里面,创建了一个结构体(这个结构体,包一个的指针,这个指针放我们真实加载完操作的文件地址),在这个结构体里面将我传进来的动态库()filename.c_str())加到结构体里面,然后保存到VM里面,那么对于我的android进程其他的地方,我只要拿到这个VM,就能找到这个结构体,通过这个结构体,就能找到这个so库里面的方法栈和引用内存
    art::JavaVMExt* vm = art::Runtime::Current()->GetJavaVM();
    // vm->LoadNativeLibrary 方法 在 java_vm_ext.cc 
    bool success = vm->LoadNativeLibrary(env,
                                         filename.c_str(),
                                         javaLoader,
                                         javaLibrarySearchPath,
                                         &error_msg);
    if (success) {
      return nullptr;
    }
  }

java_vm_ext.cc


bool JavaVMExt::LoadNativeLibrary(JNIEnv* env,
                                  const std::string& path,
                                  jobject class_loader,
                                  jstring library_path,
                                  std::string* error_msg) {
  error_msg->clear();

  // See if we've already loaded this library. If we have, and the class loader
  // matches, return successfully without doing anything.
  // TODO: for better results we should canonicalize the pathname (or even compare
  // inodes). This implementation is fine if everybody is using System.loadLibrary.
  SharedLibrary* library;    // 创建SharedLibrary对象,SharedLibrary 是一个类对象
  Thread* self = Thread::Current();
  {
    // TODO: move the locking (and more of this logic) into Libraries.
    MutexLock mu(self, *Locks::jni_libraries_lock_);
    library = libraries_->Get(path);// 实例化动态库library对象,这个path就是 so库的绝对路径,这个对象还没有赋值
  }
  void* class_loader_allocator = nullptr;
  {
    ScopedObjectAccess soa(env);
    // As the incoming class loader is reachable/alive during the call of this function,
    // it's okay to decode it without worrying about unexpectedly marking it alive.
    mirror::ClassLoader* loader = soa.Decode<mirror::ClassLoader*>(class_loader);

    ClassLinker* class_linker = Runtime::Current()->GetClassLinker(); // 获取ClassLinker对象
    if (class_linker->IsBootClassLoader(soa, loader)) {
      loader = nullptr;
      class_loader = nullptr;
    }

    class_loader_allocator = class_linker->GetAllocatorForClassLoader(loader);
    CHECK(class_loader_allocator != nullptr);
  }
  if (library != nullptr) {
    // Use the allocator pointers for class loader equality to avoid unnecessary weak root decode.
    if (library->GetClassLoaderAllocator() != class_loader_allocator) {
      // The library will be associated with class_loader. The JNI
      // spec says we can't load the same library into more than one
      // class loader.
      StringAppendF(error_msg, "Shared library \"%s\" already opened by "
          "ClassLoader %p; can't open in ClassLoader %p",
          path.c_str(), library->GetClassLoader(), class_loader);
      LOG(WARNING) << error_msg;
      return false;
    }
    VLOG(jni) << "[Shared library \"" << path << "\" already loaded in "
              << " ClassLoader " << class_loader << "]";
    if (!library->CheckOnLoadResult()) {
      StringAppendF(error_msg, "JNI_OnLoad failed on a previous attempt "
          "to load \"%s\"", path.c_str());
      return false;
    }
    return true;
  }
  // Open the shared library. Because we're using a full path, the system
  // doesn't have to search through LD_LIBRARY_PATH. (It may do so to
  // resolve this library's dependencies though.)

  // Failures here are expected when java.library.path has several entries
  // and we have to hunt for the lib.

  // Below we dlopen but there is no paired dlclose, this would be necessary if we supported
  // class unloading. Libraries will only be unloaded when the reference count (incremented by
  // dlopen) becomes zero from dlclose.

  Locks::mutator_lock_->AssertNotHeld(self);
  const char* path_str = path.empty() ? nullptr : path.c_str();
  // OpenNativeLibrary 是android 打开 natvie Library 并且返回 一个handle,这个handle赋值到了
  // 这个handl 就是android 真实加载so库完之后返回的一个指针,这个handle指针放在SharedLibrary的对象library 中,而library 放到了 libraries_ 这个智能指针中,
  void* handle = android::OpenNativeLibrary(env,
                                            runtime_->GetTargetSdkVersion(),
                                            path_str,
                                            class_loader,
                                            library_path);// 打开Native 库拿到一个handle 句柄

  bool needs_native_bridge = false;
  if (handle == nullptr) {
    if (android::NativeBridgeIsSupported(path_str)) {
      handle = android::NativeBridgeLoadLibrary(path_str, RTLD_NOW);
      needs_native_bridge = true;
    }
  }

 if (env->ExceptionCheck() == JNI_TRUE) {
    LOG(ERROR) << "Unexpected exception:";
    env->ExceptionDescribe();
    env->ExceptionClear();
  }
  // Create a new entry.
  // TODO: move the locking (and more of this logic) into Libraries.
  bool created_library = false;
  {
    // Create SharedLibrary ahead of taking the libraries lock to maintain lock ordering.
    // 这里用到一个 C++ 的智能指针 , 
    std::unique_ptr<SharedLibrary> new_library(
        // new SharedLibrary 的时候 传入了 handle 指针
        new SharedLibrary(env, self, path, handle, class_loader, class_loader_allocator));
    MutexLock mu(self, *Locks::jni_libraries_lock_);
    library = libraries_->Get(path);
    if (library == nullptr) {  // We won race to get libraries_lock.
      library = new_library.release();
      libraries_->Put(path, library);// 将我们指定的库加载进来,保存在library对象中
      created_library = true;
    }
  }
  if (!created_library) {
    LOG(INFO) << "WOW: we lost a race to add shared library: "
        << "\"" << path << "\" ClassLoader=" << class_loader;
    return library->CheckOnLoadResult();
  }
  VLOG(jni) << "[Added shared library \"" << path << "\" for ClassLoader " << class_loader << "]";

  bool was_successful = false;
  void* sym;
  if (needs_native_bridge) {
    library->SetNeedsNativeBridge();
  }
      sym = library->FindSymbol("JNI_OnLoad", nullptr);  // 拿到JNI_OnLoad方法
  if (sym == nullptr) {
    VLOG(jni) << "[No JNI_OnLoad found in \"" << path << "\"]";
    was_successful = true;
  } else {
    // Call JNI_OnLoad. We have to override the current class
    // loader, which will always be "null" since the stuff at the
    // top of the stack is around Runtime.loadLibrary(). (See
    // the comments in the JNI FindClass function.)
    ScopedLocalRef<jobject> old_class_loader(env, env->NewLocalRef(self->GetClassLoaderOverride()));
    self->SetClassLoaderOverride(class_loader);

    VLOG(jni) << "[Calling JNI_OnLoad in \"" << path << "\"]";
    typedef int (*JNI_OnLoadFn)(JavaVM*, void*);
    JNI_OnLoadFn jni_on_load = reinterpret_cast<JNI_OnLoadFn>(sym);
    int version = (*jni_on_load)(this, nullptr);

    if (runtime_->GetTargetSdkVersion() != 0 && runtime_->GetTargetSdkVersion() <= 21) {
      fault_manager.EnsureArtActionInFrontOfSignalChain();
    }

    self->SetClassLoaderOverride(old_class_loader.get());

    if (version == JNI_ERR) {
      StringAppendF(error_msg, "JNI_ERR returned from JNI_OnLoad in \"%s\"", path.c_str());
    } else if (IsBadJniVersion(version)) {
      StringAppendF(error_msg, "Bad JNI version returned from JNI_OnLoad in \"%s\": %d",
                    path.c_str(), version);
      // It's unwise to call dlclose() here, but we can mark it
      // as bad and ensure that future load attempts will fail.
      // We don't know how far JNI_OnLoad got, so there could
      // be some partially-initialized stuff accessible through
      // newly-registered native method calls. We could try to
      // unregister them, but that doesn't seem worthwhile.
    } else {
      // 加载成功的标志
      was_successful = true;
    }
    VLOG(jni) << "[Returned " << (was_successful ? "successfully" : "failure")
              << " from JNI_OnLoad in \"" << path << "\"]";
  }

  library->SetResult(was_successful);
  return was_successful;
}


static bool IsBadJniVersion(int version) {
  // We don't support JNI_VERSION_1_1. These are the only other valid versions.
  // 当不等于JNI_VERSION_1_2 或 JNI_VERSION_1_4 或 JNI_VERSION_1_6 就是个错误的version
  return version != JNI_VERSION_1_2 && version != JNI_VERSION_1_4 && version != JNI_VERSION_1_6;
}

Java_vm_ext.h

// libraries_ 是JVM 中的一个静态变量,有多少个so库,就会保存多少个SharedLibrary对象
std::unique_ptr<Libraries> libraries_  智能指针

关键是与JVM的联系:android进程,有且只有一个JavaVMExt*指针对象,当我们在LoadNativeLibrary的时候,new了一个SharedLibrary的对象指针,而SharedLibrary保存了handle句柄,然后在找文件方法的时候,都是通过对象里面的handle句柄来进行操作的,library有一个FindSymbol 来找方法,找到JNI_OnLoad方法去做具体的调用,这就是JNI设计的流程

6. 用一个完整的例子来查看android是怎么实现动态注册的(MediaPlayer)

frameworks\base\media\java\android\media\MediaPlayer.java


...
static {
        System.loadLibrary("media_jni");
        native_init();
    }
...
private static native final void native_init();
private native final void native_setup(Object mediaplayer_this); // java函数名
private native final void native_finalize();

...

它的具体实现在 MediaPlayer.cpp里面
它的JNI的具体实现在 ./frameworks/base/media/jni/android_media_MediaPlayer.cpp

static JNINativeMethod gMethods[] = {
    ······
    {"native_init",         "()V",                              (void *)android_media_MediaPlayer_native_init},
    // 这边是 native_setup : 第一个 是java函数名,第二个是签名,第三个是 jni具体实现方法的指针
    {"native_setup",        "(Ljava/lang/Object;)V",            (void *)android_media_MediaPlayer_native_setup},
    {"native_finalize",     "()V",                              (void *)android_media_MediaPlayer_native_finalize},
    ······
};

// jni具体实现方法的指针
static void
android_media_MediaPlayer_native_setup(JNIEnv *env, jobject thiz, jobject weak_this)
{
    ALOGV("native_setup");
    sp<MediaPlayer> mp = new MediaPlayer();
    if (mp == NULL) {
        jniThrowException(env, "java/lang/RuntimeException", "Out of memory");
        return;
    }

    // create new listener and give it to MediaPlayer
    sp<JNIMediaPlayerListener> listener = new JNIMediaPlayerListener(env, thiz, weak_this);
    mp->setListener(listener);

    // Stow our new C++ MediaPlayer in an opaque field in the Java object.
    setMediaPlayer(env, thiz, mp);
}

// This function only registers the native methods
static int register_android_media_MediaPlayer(JNIEnv *env)
{
    // gMethods 在这边被调用,系统可以拿到AndroidRuntime:,我们拿不到,只能分析,他注册的时候做了什么事情,
    // 分析: env ,"android/media/MediaPlayer" 是MediaPlayer.java的包名+类名
    // gMethods
    // NELEM(gMethods)算这个结构体数组的占多少个字节,将这个大小放进去(是个宏定义,便于复用)
    // # define NELEM(x) ((int)(sizeof(x) / sizeof((x)[0])))
    // registerNativeMethods 具体实现在AndroidRuntime.cpp 具体见下一段代码
    return AndroidRuntime::registerNativeMethods(env,
                "android/media/MediaPlayer", gMethods, NELEM(gMethods));
}

// 这边重写了jni.h声明的 JNI_OnLoad方法,在JNI_OnLoad中进行注册(register_android_media_MediaPlayer),在注册过程中,声明了一个gMethods的结构体数组,这里面写好了方法映射。而JNI_OnLoad的调用处,就是System.loadLibrary 的时候会走到这里,然后进行动态注册
jint JNI_OnLoad(JavaVM* vm, void* /* reserved */)
{
    JNIEnv* env = NULL;
    jint result = -1;

    if (vm->GetEnv((void**) &env, JNI_VERSION_1_4) != JNI_OK) {
        ALOGE("ERROR: GetEnv failed\n");
        goto bail;
    }
    assert(env != NULL);

    ...
    // register_android_media_MediaPlayer 在这边被调用
    if (register_android_media_MediaPlayer(env) < 0) {
        ALOGE("ERROR: MediaPlayer native registration failed\n");
        goto bail;
    }
    ...

    /* success -- return valid version number */
    result = JNI_VERSION_1_4;

bail:
    return result;
}

/frameworks/base/core/jni/AndroidRuntime.cpp

/*static*/ int AndroidRuntime::registerNativeMethods(JNIEnv* env,
    const char* className, const JNINativeMethod* gMethods, int numMethods)
{
    // jniRegisterNativeMethods 是在JNIHelp.cpp 里面实现的
    return jniRegisterNativeMethods(env, className, gMethods, numMethods);
}

/external/conscrypt/src/compat/native/JNIHelp.cpp

extern "C" int jniRegisterNativeMethods(C_JNIEnv* env, const char* className,
    const JNINativeMethod* gMethods, int numMethods)
{
    JNIEnv* e = reinterpret_cast<JNIEnv*>(env);

    ALOGV("Registering %s's %d native methods...", className, numMethods);
    // 这边是重点 ,findClass 的实现是 env->FindClass(className)
    scoped_local_ref<jclass> c(env, findClass(env, className));
    if (c.get() == NULL) {
       char* msg;
       asprintf(&msg, "Native registration unable to find class '%s'; aborting...", className);
       e->FatalError(msg);
    }
    // env的注册 
    if ((*env)->RegisterNatives(e, c.get(), gMethods, numMethods) < 0) {
       char* msg;
      asprintf(&msg, "RegisterNatives failed for '%s'; aborting...", className);
       e->FatalError(msg);
    }

    return 0;
}

7. JNI 动态注册

根据以上的分析进行实现

public class FileUtils {

    public static native void diff(String path,String pattern_Path,int file_num);

    public static void javaDiff(String path,String pattern_Path,int file_num){}

    // Used to load the 'native-lib' library on application startup.
    static {
        System.loadLibrary("native-lib");
    }
}
#include "com_example_zeking_FileUtils.h"

#include <android/log.h>
#include <assert.h>

//int __android_log_print(int prio, const char* tag, const char* fmt, ...)
#define TAG "Zeking_JNI"
#define LOGI(...) __android_log_print(ANDROID_LOG_INFO, TAG, __VA_ARGS__)
# define NELEM(x) ((int) (sizeof(x) / sizeof((x)[0])))
/*
 * Class:     com_example_zekign_FileUtils
 * Method:    diff
 * Signature: (Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/String;I)V
 */
JNIEXPORT void JNICALL native_diff
        (JNIEnv *env, jclass clazz, jstring path, jstring pattern_Path, jint file_num)
{

    LOGI("JNI begin 动态注册的方法 ");

}

static const JNINativeMethod gMethods[] = {
        {
                "diff","(Ljava/lang/String;Ljava/lang/String;I)V",(void*)native_diff
        }
};

static int registerNatives(JNIEnv* engv)
{
    LOGI("registerNatives begin");
    jclass  clazz;
    clazz = (*engv) -> FindClass(engv, "com/example/zeking/FileUtils");

    if (clazz == NULL) {
        LOGI("clazz is null");
        return JNI_FALSE;
    }

    if ((*engv) ->RegisterNatives(engv, clazz, gMethods, NELEM(gMethods)) < 0) { LOGI("RegisterNatives error"); return JNI_FALSE; } return JNI_TRUE; } JNIEXPORT jint JNI_OnLoad(JavaVM* vm, void* reserved) { LOGI("jni_OnLoad begin"); JNIEnv* env = NULL; jint result = -1; if ((*vm)->GetEnv(vm,(void**) &env, JNI_VERSION_1_4) != JNI_OK) { LOGI("ERROR: GetEnv failed\n"); return -1; } assert(env != NULL); registerNatives(env); return JNI_VERSION_1_4; } 

静态注册:
每个class都需要使用javah生成一个头文件,并且生成的名字很长书写不便;初次调用时需要依据名字搜索对应的JNI层函数来建立关联关系,会影响运行效率
用javah 生成头文件方便简单

  1. javah生一个头文件 操作简单
  2. 名字很长 书写不方便
  3. 初次调用的使用,需要依据名字搜索对应的FindSymbol(具体看Runctime.c)
    来找到对应的方法,如果方法数较多的时候,效率不高

动态注册:

  1. 第一次调用效率高
  2. 使用一种数据结构JNINativeMethod来记录java native函数和JNI函数的对应关系
  3. 移植方便,便于维护(一个java文件中有多个native方法,只要修改下gMethods 的映射关系)
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